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What did the Muslims do for the Jews?

What did the Muslims do for the Jews?

 

Islam saved Jewry. This is an unpopular, discomforting claim in the modern world. But it is a historical truth. The argument for it is double. First, in 570 CE, when the Prophet Mohammad was born, the Jews and Judaism were on the way to oblivion. And second, the coming of Islam saved them, providing a new context in which they not only survived, but flourished, laying foundations for subsequent Jewish cultural prosperity – also in Christendom – through the medieval period into the modern world.

By the fourth century, Christianity had become the dominant religion in the Roman empire. One aspect of this success was opposition to rival faiths, including Judaism, along with massive conversion of members of such faiths, sometimes by force, to Christianity. Much of our testimony about Jewish existence in the Roman empire from this time on consists of accounts of conversions.

Great and permanent reductions in numbers through conversion, between the fourth and the seventh centuries, brought with them a gradual but relentless whittling away of the status, rights, social and economic existence, and religious and cultural life of Jews all over the Roman empire.

A long series of enactments deprived Jewish people of their rights as citizens, prevented them from fulfilling their religious obligations, and excluded them from the society of their fellows.

This went along with the centuries-long military and political struggle with Persia. As a tiny element in the Christian world, the Jews should not have been affected much by this broad, political issue. Yet it affected them critically, because the Persian empire at this time included Babylon – now Iraq – at the time home to the world’s greatest concentration of Jews.

Had Islam not come along, Jewry in the west would have declined to disappearance and Jewry in the east would have become just another oriental cult

Here also were the greatest centres of Jewish intellectual life. The most important single work of Jewish cultural creativity in over 3,000 years, apart from the Bible itself – the Talmud – came into being in Babylon. The struggle between Persia and Byzantium, in our period, led increasingly to a separation between Jews under Byzantine, Christian rule and Jews under Persian rule.

Beyond all this, the Jews who lived under Christian rule seemed to have lost the knowledge of their own culturally specific languages – Hebrew and Aramaic – and to have taken on the use of Latin or Greek or other non-Jewish, local, languages. This in turn must have meant that they also lost access to the central literary works of Jewish culture – the Torah, Mishnah, poetry, midrash, even liturgy.

The loss of the unifying force represented by language – and of the associated literature – was a major step towards assimilation and disappearance. In these circumstances, with contact with the one place where Jewish cultural life continued to prosper – Babylon – cut off by conflict with Persia, Jewish life in the Christian world of late antiquity was not simply a pale shadow of what it had been three or four centuries earlier. It was doomed.

Had Islam not come along, the conflict with Persia would have continued. The separation between western Judaism, that of Christendom, and Babylonian Judaism, that of Mesopotamia, would have intensified. Jewry in the west would have declined to disappearance in many areas. And Jewry in the east would have become just another oriental cult.

But this was all prevented by the rise of Islam. The Islamic conquests of the seventh century changed the world, and did so with dramatic, wide-ranging and permanent effect for the Jews.

Within a century of the death of Mohammad, in 632, Muslim armies had conquered almost the whole of the world where Jews lived, from Spain eastward across North Africa and the Middle East as far as the eastern frontier of Iran and beyond. Almost all the Jews in the world were now ruled by Islam. This new situation transformed Jewish existence. Their fortunes changed in legal, demographic, social, religious, political, geographical, economic, linguistic and cultural terms – all for the better.

First, things improved politically. Almost everywhere in Christendom where Jews had lived now formed part of the same political space as Babylon – Cordoba and Basra lay in the same political world. The old frontier between the vital centre in Babylonia and the Jews of the Mediterranean basin was swept away, forever.

Political change was partnered by change in the legal status of the Jewish population: although it is not always clear what happened during the Muslim conquests, one thing is certain. The result of the conquests was, by and large, to make the Jews second-class citizens.

This should not be misunderstood: to be a second-class citizen was a far better thing to be than not to be a citizen at all. For most of these Jews, second-class citizenship represented a major advance. In Visigothic Spain, for example, shortly before the Muslim conquest in 711, the Jews had seen their children removed from them and forcibly converted to Christianity and had themselves been enslaved.

In the developing Islamic societies of the classical and medieval periods, being a Jew meant belonging to a category defined under law, enjoying certain rights and protections, alongside various obligations. These rights and protections were not as extensive or as generous as those enjoyed by Muslims, and the obligations were greater but, for the first few centuries, the Muslims themselves were a minority, and the practical differences were not all that great.

Along with legal near-equality came social and economic equality. Jews were not confined to ghettos, either literally or in terms of economic activity. The societies of Islam were, in effect, open societies. In religious terms, too, Jews enjoyed virtually full freedom. They might not build many new synagogues – in theory – and they might not make too public their profession of their faith, but there was no really significant restriction on the practice of their religion. Along with internal legal autonomy, they also enjoyed formal representation, through leaders of their own, before the authorities of the state. Imperfect and often not quite as rosy as this might sound, it was at least the broad norm.

The political unity brought by the new Islamic world-empire did not last, but it created a vast Islamic world civilisation, similar to the older Christian civilisation that it replaced. Within this huge area, Jews lived and enjoyed broadly similar status and rights everywhere. They could move around, maintain contacts, and develop their identity as Jews. A great new expansion of trade from the ninth century onwards brought the Spanish Jews – like the Muslims – into touch with the Jews and the Muslims even of India.

A ll this was encouraged by a further, critical development. Huge numbers of people in the new world of Islam adopted the language of the Muslim Arabs. Arabic gradually became the principal language of this vast area, excluding almost all the rest: Greek and Syriac, Aramaic and Coptic and Latin all died out, replaced by Arabic. Persian, too, went into a long retreat, to reappear later heavily influenced by Arabic.

The Jews moved over to Arabic very rapidly. By the early 10th century, only 300 years after the conquests, Sa’adya Gaon was translating the Bible into Arabic. Bible translation is a massive task – it is not undertaken unless there is a need for it. By about the year 900, the Jews had largely abandoned other languages and taken on Arabic.

The change of language in its turn brought the Jews into direct contact with broader cultural developments. The result from the 10th century on was a striking pairing of two cultures. The Jews of the Islamic world developed an entirely new culture, which differed from their culture before Islam in terms of language, cultural forms, influences, and uses. Instead of being concerned primarily with religion, the new Jewish culture of the Islamic world, like that of its neighbours, mixed the religious and the secular to a high degree. The contrast, both with the past and with medieval Christian Europe, was enormous.

Like their neighbours, these Jews wrote in Arabic in part, and in a Jewish form of that language. The use of Arabic brought them close to the Arabs. But the use of a specific Jewish form of that language maintained the barriers between Jew and Muslim. The subjects that Jews wrote about, and the literary forms in which they wrote about them, were largely new ones, borrowed from the Muslims and developed in tandem with developments in Arabic Islam.

Also at this time, Hebrew was revived as a language of high literature, parallel to the use among the Muslims of a high form of Arabic for similar purposes. Along with its use for poetry and artistic prose, secular writing of all forms in Hebrew and in (Judeo-)Arabic came into being, some of it of high quality.

Much of the greatest poetry in Hebrew written since the Bible comes from this period. Sa’adya Gaon, Solomon Ibn Gabirol, Ibn Ezra (Moses and Abraham), Maimonides, Yehuda Halevi, Yehudah al-Harizi, Samuel ha-Nagid, and many more – all of these names, well known today, belong in the first rank of Jewish literary and cultural endeavour.

Where did these Jews produce all this? When did they and their neighbours achieve this symbiosis, this mode of living together? The Jews did it in a number of centres of excellence. The most outstanding of these was Islamic Spain, where there was a true Jewish Golden Age, alongside a wave of cultural achievement among the Muslim population. The Spanish case illustrates a more general pattern, too.

What happened in Islamic Spain – waves of Jewish cultural prosperity paralleling waves of cultural prosperity among the Muslims – exemplifies a larger pattern in Arab Islam. In Baghdad, between the ninth and the twelfth centuries; in Qayrawan (in north Africa), between the ninth and the 11th centuries; in Cairo, between the 10th and the 12th centuries, and elsewhere, the rise and fall of cultural centres of Islam tended to be reflected in the rise and fall of Jewish cultural activity in the same places.

This was not coincidence, and nor was it the product of particularly enlightened liberal patronage by Muslim rulers. It was the product of a number of deeper features of these societies, social and cultural, legal and economic, linguistic and political, which together enabled and indeed encouraged the Jews of the Islamic world to create a novel sub-culture within the high civilisation of the time.

This did not last for ever; the period of culturally successful symbiosis between Jew and Arab Muslim in the middle ages came to a close by about 1300. In reality, it had reached this point even earlier, with the overall relative decline in the importance and vitality of Arabic culture, both in relation to western European cultures and in relation to other cultural forms within Islam itself; Persian and Turkish.

Jewish cultural prosperity in the middle ages operated in large part as a function of Muslim, Arabic cultural (and to some degree political) prosperity: when Muslim Arabic culture thrived, so did that of the Jews; when Muslim Arabic culture declined, so did that of the Jews.

In the case of the Jews, however, the cultural capital thus created also served as the seed-bed of further growth elsewhere – in Christian Spain and in the Christian world more generally.

The Islamic world was not the only source of inspiration for the Jewish cultural revival that came later in Christian Europe, but it certainly was a major contributor to that development. Its significance cannot be overestimated.

David J Wasserstein is the Eugene Greener Jr Professor of Jewish Studies at Vanderbilt University. This article is adapted from last week’s Jordan Lectures in Comparative Religion at the School of Oriental and African Studies.

Source: The Jewish Chronicle

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Posted by on June 6, 2018 in Relax

 

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Pearls in the Sky (Ramadan Nasheed)

 
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Posted by on May 19, 2018 in Relax, Video

 

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The Prophet Muhammad’s Care for People with Special Needs

The Prophet Muhammad’s Care for People with Special Needs

by Muhammad Mus`ad Yaqut

The civilized world has recently paid attention to people with special needs. This started after it had cast aside corrupt, racist theories calling for neglecting them on the false grounds that people with special needs are not of any benefit to the society. A report issued by the United Nations International Labor Organization in 2000 estimated the number of those with special needs to be more than 610 million, out of which 400 million live in developing countries. According to the World Bank’s statistics, this category represents 15 percent of the world’s population.

> In Early Societies

> The Prophet and People With Special Needs

> Honoring Them and Meeting Their Needs

> Forgiving the Fool and the Ignorant

> Consoling Them

> Visiting Them

> Praying for Them

> Prohibition of Mocking Them

> Removing Difficulties and Hardships

> Breaking Their Isolation

In Early Societies

A cursory look at the history of the West shows the blatant neglect and persecution of people with special needs that culminated in killing disabled babies in some old European societies. Superstitious beliefs were responsible for this setback. For example, it was believed that people suffering from intellectual disabilities were possessed by devils and evil spirits. Even philosophers and scholars held such ideas. The laws of the legendary lawgiver of Sparta, Lycurgus, and the Athenian philosopher and lawmaker Solon allowed getting rid of those who had disabilities that made them unable to work or engage in war. Moreover, the renowned philosopher Plato came and declared that those who have special needs are a malicious category constituting a burden on the society and a damaging factor to his Republic. Likewise, English philosopher Herbert Spenser (1820-1903) called on the society to deny those with special needs any kind of help, claiming that this category constitutes a useless, heavy burden for a society to carry.

Whereas, the pre-Islamic Arabs – though they used to kill their female babies for fear of possible disgrace – were less hardhearted and more compassionate toward those afflicted with adversities and the chronically ill. They, however, abstained from sharing food or sitting at a meal with those who had special needs.

When the world was floundering between theories that called for the execution of the mentally disabled and other theories that called for employing them in drudgery, the East and the West, at long last, rightly arrived at the idea of the perfect care for people with special needs. That being the case, we, on the other hand, do see how our Messenger, the educator and teacher, (peace and blessings be upon him) was so merciful toward this type of people.

The Prophet and People With Special Needs

It is narrated on the authority of Anas (may Allah be pleased with him) that a woman, somewhat mentally defected, said, “ O Messenger of Allah! I have a need that I want you to meet. He responded, “O mother of so and so, choose the way you like to walk in so that I may know your need and meet it.” He walked with her in some route until she had her need fulfilled (Muslim).

This is, of course, a proof of his forbearance, humility, and patience in answering the needs of those with special needs. It, also, serves a legal proof that a ruler is obligated to care for people with special needs, socially, economically, and psychologically, and that the ruler should fulfill their needs and grant their requests.

The forms of such care include, but are not restricted to the following:

· Medication and regular check-up

· Proper education and training

· Assigning some workers to take care of them

Following this merciful Prophetic course, `Umar ibn `Abdul-Aziz(may Allah be pleased with him) asked rulers of the provinces to send him the names of all those blind, crippled, or with a chronic illness that prevented them from establishing salah. So they sent him their names. He, in turn, ordered that every blind man should have an employee to guide and look after him, and that every two chronically ill persons – those with special needs – be attended by a servant to serve and care for them (Ibn Al-Jawzi).

The same course was taken by Umayyad caliph Al-Waleed ibn`Abdul-Malik (may Allah have mercy on him). The idea of the establishment of institutes or centers for the care of people with special needs was his. In AH 88(707 CE), he ordered the establishment of a foundation specialized in looking after them. Doctors and servants, paid fixed stipends, were employed in this foundation. He granted a regular allowance to persons with special needs, and told them, “Do not beg people.” Thereby, he made them sufficient enough to not beg others. In addition, he appointed employees to serve all those who were disabled, crippled, or blind (Ibn Kathir, At-Tabari).

Honoring Them and Meeting Their Needs

It happened in a well-known incident that Prophet Muhammad frowned at the face of a blind man, `Abdullah ibn Umm Maktoum (may Allah be pleased with him) when he came to ask the Prophet about a Shari `ah matter. The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) was sitting at that time with a group of noble and high-placed people attempting to win them over toward Islam. Although the blind man did not see nor perceive his frowning face, yet Allah (the Mighty and Exalted) blamed His Messenger for doing this, saying what means in the Qur’an, (He frowned and turned away, that the blind man came to him. And what makes you realize whether he would possibly (try) to cleanse himself? Or that he would constantly remember, and the Reminding would profit him?)(`Abasa 80:1-4).

Afterwards, the Prophet used to meet that blind man with a welcoming and smiling face, saying to him, “Welcome to a man for whom my Lord has blamed me!” (Al-Qurtubi).

Forgiving the Fool and the Ignorant

The beloved Prophet’s mercy toward those with special needs, his forgiveness to the ignorant and his forbearance toward the fool did most evidently emerge in the battle of Uhud (Shawwal AH 3/ April 624 CE). It is reported that when the Prophet headed along with his army toward Uhud, intending to pass by a farm owned by a blind hypocrite, the latter insulted the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him). The blind man picked a handful of dust and insolently said to the Prophet, “By Allah, if I am certain that none but you will be affected by it, I will definitely throw it at you.” The Companions of the Prophet were about to kill that blind person, but the Prophet forbade them, saying, “Leave him alone” (Ibn Kathir).

The Prophet did not capitalize on the fact that the blind man was weak; he did not order that he be killed or even harmed, though the Muslim army was on its way to battle and the situation was critical and the nerves were tense. Despite this, when the blind hypocrite stood in the army’s way and said what he said and did what he did, Allah’s Messenger refused but to forgive and pardon him, as it is not becoming of Muslim fighters, let alone the Prophet, to attack or harm those who are handicapped and disabled. It was his approach to behave kindly toward them, take a lesson from their condition, and supplicate Allah to cure them.

Consoling Them

It is reported on the authority of `A’ishah(may Allah be pleased with her) that she said, “I heard Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings be upon him) say, ‘Allah, Glorified and Exalted be He, revealed to me that whosoever takes a route of seeking knowledge, the route to Paradise will be made easy for him, and that I (Allah) will reward the one whose two dear things (that’s his eyes) were taken away from him with Paradise” (Al-Baihaqiand authenticated by Al-Albani).

The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him), addressing all who have illnesses and disabilities, said,“No Muslim is pricked with a thorn, or anything larger than that, except that a hasanah will be recorded for him and a sin will be erased as a reward for that”(Al-Bukhari and Muslim).

There exists in these Prophetic texts and hadith qudsi comfort and glad tidings for everyone with a certain disability; if they exhibit patience at their adversity, being content with the trial Allah has afflicted them with, anticipating the reward from Allah alone for their disability, Allah will recompense their with Paradise.

`Amr ibn Al-Gamouh was a lame man. However he insisted on participating with the Muslims in the battle of Uhud where he was martyred. The prophet passed by his body and said, “As though I could see you walking with this leg of yours, being heard, in Paradise” (Authenticated by Al-Albani).

It is narrated that the Messenger of Allah left Ibn Umm Maktoum twice as his successor in Madinah to lead the prayer, though he was blind (Ahmad).

And it is reported on the authority of `A’ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) that Ibn Umm Maktoumwas a muezzin of Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings be upon him) though he was blind (Muslim).

It is narrated via Sa`id ibn Al-Mosayyab (may Allah have mercy on him) that when Muslims would go on their expeditions, they used to leave those among them who were chronically ill, submit the keys of their doors to them, saying, “We have made it lawful for you to partake of our houses’ food” (Ar-Razi).

Al-Hasan ibn Muhammad said, “I entered upon Abi Zayd Al-Ansari, who called out the Adhan andIqamah while he was sitting.” He added, “a man advanced and led us in prayer. That man was lame whose leg was hit in the Cause of Allah, the Exalted” (Al-Baihaqi).

Thus was the Prophet’s society, a society that was marked by mutual support, cooperation, and unity in consoling, honoring, and respecting those with special needs. For all of this, the course of the merciful Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) was the role model in dealing with those who have special needs.

Visiting Them

Visiting the sick in general, and the disabled in particular, was legislated by Islam for the purpose of relieving their suffering. A disabled person, compared to a sound one, is closer to withdrawal, isolation, a pessimistic view, and psychological illness. So, neglecting the disabled in social occasions, such as visits and marriage, is wrong.

The Prophet used to visit the sick, pray for them and console them, instilling confidence in their souls and covering their hearts and faces with happiness and joy. He could once go to someone in the outskirts of Madinah particularly to answer a simple need of his or hers or to perform salah in the house of an afflicted one, as granting of his or her request.

An example of this was `Etban ibn Malik (may Allah be pleased with him); he was a blind man from Ansar. He said to the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him), “I wish that you, O Messenger of Allah, would come and perform salah in my house so that I would take it as a place of prayer.” As a reply, the Prophet promised to visit him and perform prayer, so humbly saying, “I will do, if Allah so wills.”

`Etban said, “Allah’s Messenger and Abu Bakr came early in the morning. Allah’s Messenger asked for permission to enter, which I gave.” Without sitting, he immediately entered and said, “In which part of your house do you like me to pray?” I pointed to a certain place in the house, so the Messenger of Allah stood and started praying and we, in turn, stood and he lined us in a row. He performed a two-rak`ah prayer, ending it with taslim (Al-Bukhari and Muslim).

Praying for Them

The mercy of the Prophet of Islam toward people with special needs was so manifest as well when he legislated the supplication for them as a way to encourage them to endure afflictions. He desired to create will and build resolve in their souls.

Once a blind man entered into the presence of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) and said, “Supplicate Allah to cure me.” He (peace and blessings be upon him) replied, “I shall supplicate if you will, yet it would be better for you if you choose to keep patient.” The man asked the Prophet to make du`aa‘ for him. Then, the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) ordered him to perform wudu‘ well and say the following du`aa‘: “My Lord, I implore you and turn to you, having your Prophet Muhammad as an intercessor for me, so that my need may be answered. O Lord, make him an intercessor for me and accept his intercession.” (At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah)

Also:

A woman, who would usually have epileptic fits, came to the Prophet and said, “I do have epileptic fits that, as a result, cause parts of my body to be revealed. So, pray to Allah for me.”

To this came the reply of the Prophet,“If you will, be patient and Paradise will be your reward. And if you will, I shall supplicate Allah to cure you.”

She said, “I choose patience.” Then she said, “But parts of my body to be revealed, so pray to Allah that this will not happen.” And the Prophet prayed for her. (Al-Bukhari and Muslim)

Prohibition of Mocking Them

“Cursed is he who misleads a blind person away from his path”(Hadith)
People with special needs, in some societies of Europe, were taken as objects of mockery, amusement, or fun. The handicapped would, therefore, find themselves stuck between two fires: the fire of exclusion and isolation on one hand, and the fire of derision and malicious joy on the other. Accordingly, the society would turn, within itself, into an abode of estrangement, persecution, and separation.

However, Islamic law came to forbid ridiculing all people in general, and the afflicted in particular. Allah the Exalted revealed most evident Quranic verses stressing the prohibition of such an ignorant attribute of pre-Islamic era; these verses read what means:

(O you who believe,let not a folk deride a folk who may be better than they (are), not let women (deride) women who may be better than they are; neither defame one another, nor insult one another by nicknames. Bad is the name of lewdness after faith. And whosoturneth not in repentance, such are evil-doers.) (Al-Hujurat 49:11)

It is also authentically reported that the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said,“Pride is the rejection of the truth and looking down at people” (Muslim). Perhaps the afflicted one is higher in rank in Allah’s sight and has a precedence over people in terms of knowledge, jihad, piety, chastity, and good manners. Let alone the general and decisive rule set by the Prophet:“Indeed, Allah has made your blood, your wealth, and your honor forbidden for you, one to another” (Al-Bukhari).

Additionally, the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) has warned in such a strict manner against misleading the blind away from their path or harming them or making them an object of fun and mockery: “Cursed is he who misleads a blind person away from his path” (Authenticated by Al-Albani).

This carries a severe threat for those who take the congenital defects as a method of fun, amusement, or derision, and for those who look down at those who are defected. People afflicted with certain defects could be a brother or sister, father or mother, son or daughter, tested by Allah, so that we may take a lesson from their condition and recognize the power of Allah; not for the purpose of making them an object of entertainment and fun.

Breaking Their Isolation

The pre-Islamic society used to boycott people with special needs, isolate them, and prevent them from leading normal lives, such as their right to marriage or even interaction with people.

Before Islam, people of Madinah used to prevent the lame, the blind, and the diseased from sharing food with them, because they deemed them disgusting. On this, Allah the Exalted revealed what means,

(No blame is there upon the blind nor any blame upon the lame nor any blame upon the sick nor on yourselves if you eat from your houses, or the houses of your fathers, or the houses of your mothers, or the houses of your brothers, or the houses of your sisters, or the houses of your fathers’ brothers, or the houses of your fathers’ sisters, or the houses of your mothers’ brothers, or the houses of your mothers’ sisters, or (from that) whereof you hold the keys, or (from the house) of a friend. No sin shall it be for you whether you eat together or a part. But when you enter houses, salute one another with a greeting from Allah, blessed and sweet. Thus Allah maketh clear His revelations for you, that haply you may understand.)(An-Nur 24:61)

It is indicated here that there is no harm in jointly partaking of food with the sick, the blind, and the lame. They are people just like ourselves, having the same rights as ours. So, Muslims do not boycott, isolate, or forsake them, for the most honorable among Muslims in Allah’s sight are the most pious, regardless of anything else. Besides, there is a hadith that reads “Allah looks at neither your appearances nor your wealth; rather, He looks at your hearts and your deeds”(Muslim).

Thus, the Qur’an has been revealed as a mercy for people with special needs, consoling, relieving, and supporting them. It saves them from the most dangerous psychological diseases that may affect them if they happen to suffer from isolation and withdrawal from social life.

Unlike what some societies had done, Islam permitted people with special needs to marry, for they have hearts, emotions, and feelings, just like others. The right to marriage was, therefore, established for them so long as they have the ability needed for that.

They have rights as well as obligations. Muslims did not exploit the weakness of those with special needs; Muslims did not take away their due rights or deny them their rightful property. It is narrated that `Umar ibn Al-Khattab (may Allah be pleased with him) said, “If any man marries a woman who is insane or leper and touches her (i.e. have intercourse with her), then the whole dower becomes due to her” (Ahmad).

Removing Difficulties and Hardships

Among the forms of mercy toward people with special needs is the fact that Shari`ah takes them into consideration with regard to many of the obligatory rulings, removes the difficulties they might encounter, and makes things easy for them.

On the authority of Zaydibn Thabit(may Allah be pleased with him), the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) dictated to him the verse that says what means: (Those of the believers who sit still … are not on an equality with those who strive in the way of Allah with their wealth and lives) (An-Nisaa’ 4:95).He said, “Ibn Umm Maktoum came while the Prophet was dictating it to me to write it down, and said, ‘O Messenger of Allah, if I was capable of jihad, I would certainly do;’” he was a blind man. Zayd ibn Thabit further said, “Then, Allah, Almighty and Exalted be He, revealed to His Messenger, (other than those who have a (disabling) hurt)” (An-Nisaa’ 4:95). (Al-Bukhari)

Relieving the burdens of people with special needs, Almighty Allah says what means:

(There is no restriction on the blind, nor is there restriction on the lame, nor is there restriction on the sick. And whoever obeys Allah and His Messenger, He will cause him to enter Gardens from beneath which rivers run; and whoever turns away, He will torment him with a painful torment.)(Al-Fath 48:17)

Thus, Almighty Allah absolved them from the obligation of jihad in the battlefields. They may carry arms and go to battle voluntarily only. An example of this is the story reported by Ibn Hisham of `Amribn Al-Gamouh (may Allah be pleased with him) in the battle of Uhud. He was a lame man who had four sons who used to engage alongside the Messenger of Allah in all serious events. When the Day of Uhud drew so nigh, they wanted to keep him back, telling him, “Allah the Glorified and Exalted has excused you!” So he went to the Messenger of Allah and said, “My sons want to prevent me from going out to fight with you. Yet, by Allah, I wish to tread with this crippled leg of mine in Paradise! The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) replied, “As for you, Allah did indeed excuse you, so you are not obligated to engage in jihad.” Then the Prophet said to his sons, “Do not keep him back; perhaps Allah will grant him martyrdom.” Ibn Hisham went out with the army and fell a martyr on the Day of Uhud (Ibn Hisham).

Nevertheless, the relief enjoyed by the handicapped under the Islamic law is distinguished by balance and moderation. A disabled person should be relieved in proportion to his disability and be obligated according to his ability. Al-Qurtubi says,

Verily, Allah absolved the blind from the duties that necessitate eyesight, the crippled from the duties that involve walking or cannot be done with lameness, and the sick from the duties canceled on account of sickness, such as fasting, the conditions and pillars of salah, and jihad and so forth. (Al-Qurtubi)

The blind and the insane are examples of this; the former is charged with all the Shari`ah obligations except for certain duties such as jihad. As for the latter, Allah Almighty has absolved them from all obligations. The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) made it clear that three types of people are not accountable: “a sleeping person till he wakes up, a child till he grows up, and an insane person till he turns sane” (Ibn Majah).

A madman shall not be punished in any way, no matter what mistakes he may make or crimes he may commit.

Thus was the approach of the Prophet in dealing with people with special needs at a time the rights of those people were not recognized whatsoever by any people or regime. So, the Islamic law came and defined the comprehensive and perfect care for people with special needs. It has put them on a good place within the priorities of the Muslim society. It has legislated the forgiveness of the fool and ignorant among them. It has honored their afflicted ones, especially those who have certain talents, useful crafts, or successful experiences. It has also encouraged visiting and praying for them. It has prohibited ridiculing them. It breaks their isolation and boycott, lightens the rules for them and absolves them from their obligations. Excellent indeed is the law of Islam and its Prophet!

Sources:

Al-Qurtubi, Muhammad ibnAhmad ibn Abi Bakr, Al-Jami` liAhkam Al-Qur’an.

Ar-Razi, Fakhr Ad-Din, Mafatih Al-Ghaib.

At-Tabari, Muhammad ibn Jarir.TarikhAr-Rusul wa Al-Mulouk.

Ibn Al-Jawzi, Sirat`Umar ibn`Abdul-`Aziz.

Ibn Hisham, `Abdul-Malik ibnHisham ibn Ayoub, As-Sirah An-Nabawiyah.

Ibn Kathir, Isma`il ibn `Amr Al-Basri, Al-Bidayah wa An-Nihayah.

Muhammad Mus`ad Yaqut is an Egyptian preacher and researcher. He prepares and presents programs on the Egyptian TV and other Arab satellite channels. He is a member of the Afro-Asian Writers’ Association.

source: https://archive.islamonline…

 
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Posted by on April 23, 2018 in Know him !, Relax

 

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Grandmother Accepted Islam & Is Now Sharing It !

 
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Posted by on March 29, 2018 in Relax, Video

 

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Chicago Muslims Launch Hijab Billboard Campaign

Chicago Muslims Launch Hijab Billboard Campaign

OAKBROOK TERRACE – With billboards that draw a similarity between Islamic hijab and the veiled Virgin Mary, a Muslim group from Chicago launched a billboard campaign on Monday to inform people about hijab in Illinois.

“Wearing the hijab is 100% my choice. As contrary to the popular belief, hijab in no way oppresses us. In fact, it indicates the opposite as hijab symbolizes the power to women, and not inferiority,” Sara Ahmed, GainPeace volunteer, told WGNTV on Monday.

Islam sees hijab as an obligatory code of dress, not just a religious symbol displaying one’s affiliations.

The billboards are the first of their kind in the country, designed by a group called GainPeace, which encourages non-Muslim Americans to contact the organization for a better understanding of why Muslim women wear the hijab.

hijab

“Hijab is a simple yet powerful reminder of strength. I stand here today so that generations tomorrow don’t feel deprived or threatened by their choice of dress,” Kiran Malik, GainPeace volunteer, said.

“So that they may have the courage to stand by their beliefs, and so that this piece of cloth doesn’t label them or categorize them with an unwanted label.”

Speaking during the news conference, the female organizers of GainPeace spoke about hatred they have encountered while wearing a hijab.

GainPeace hopes this campaign will help different religious groups in the US have a better understanding of Islam.

They say they’ve already gotten many phone calls, most of which have been positive.

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Posted by on February 21, 2018 in Relax, Sex !

 

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The just ruler (Al-Hasan Al-Basri)

When Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz assumed the caliphate, he wrote to al-Hasan ibn Abi al-Hasan al-Basri asking him to write to him and describe the just ruler.

Al-Hasan (rahimahullah) wrote:

“Be it known to you, O Commander of the Faithful, that Allah instituted the just ruler to be the redress of every wrong-doer, the discipline of every unfair person, the correction of every corrupt man, the strength of every weak one, the justice of every wronged being, and the refuge of every frightened individual.

The just ruler, O Commander of the Faithful, is like a shepherd who is tender toward his camels and kind to them; he takes them to the best pastures, prevents them from going to dangerous places, defends them against wild beasts, and protects them from the harms of the heat and the cold.

 

The just ruler, O Commander of the Faithful, is like a father who feels compassion for his children, works hard for them when young and teaches them as they grow older, earns for them during his lifetime, and saves for them after his death.

 

The just ruler, O Commander of the Faithful, is like a tender mother who is dutiful and kind to her baby, who bears him and gives him birth unwillingly, who brings him up as a child, staying up at night when he does, and being quiet when he is at rest; she suckles him for a time and then weans him, she rejoices when he is healthy and is saddened when he is in pain.

 

The just ruler, O Commander of the Faithful, is the guardian of orphans and treasurer of the poor, educating the young among them and providing for the older ones.

 

The just ruler, O Commander of the Faithful, is like the heart among the other body organs: they are healthy if the heart is healthy, and sick when the heart is sick.

 

The just ruler, O Commander of the Faithful, is the one who stands between Allah and his servants; he listens to what Allah says and conveys it to them, he looks to Allah and makes them look too; he is led by Allah and he leads them. Therefore, O Commander of the Faithful, in relation to the realm given to you by Allah, may He be exalted and magnified, do not be like a servant whose master entrusted him with his wealth and dependents, but who wasted the wealth and drove away the dependents like tramps, thus impoverishing his master’s family and frittering away his wealth.

 

Be it known to you, O Commander of the Faithful, that Allah has prescribed punishments to act as deterrents to wicked deeds and vile acts. So if these deeds and acts are committed by those responsible for implementing the punishments, what will happen? Allah has prescribed punishment as a means to better living for His servants. So if the one who should be doing justice to them kills them, what will happen? And remember death and what follows it, O Commander of the Faithful, when you will have no adherents and no supporters to help you against it; so provide for it and for the great terror that follows it.

 

Be it known to you, O Commander of the Faithful, that you have a home other than the one you are in now. In it you will abide for a long time. Your loved ones will abandon you and leave you in it all alone. Provide for it that which will remain with you. “On the day when a man flees from his brother, and from his mother and his father, and from his wife and his sons.” [Quran. 80:34–36]

 

Remember, O Commander of the Faithful, “… when what is in the tombs is resurrected, and what is in the breasts is gathered” [Quran. 100:9–10], secrets will become manifest, and the Book “… leaves out nothing small or great but has recorded it” [Quran. 18:49].

 

Now, O Commander of the Faithful, while you still have time and before the arrival of the appointed hour of death and loss of hope: do not rule Allah’s servants as the ignorant do, and do not behave with them as oppressors do, the way the domineering arrogant ones conduct themselves with those they deem to be weak, for they observe no covenant or compact of protection. Otherwise, you will end up bearing your burdens and other burdens too, and you will carry your loads and other loads too. Do not be deceived by those who enjoy what causes you misery and those who eat good things in this world of theirs, for you will then lose your good things in the Hereafter. Do not look at your power today but look rather at your power tomorrow, when you are captive in the snares of death, standing before Allah, may He be exalted, and in the presence of the angels, the prophets, and the apostles, when “All faces shall be humbled before the Living, Self-Subsisting One” [Quran. 20:111].

O Commander of the Faithful, although I have not achieved in my sermon what earlier men of intellect have, I have not withheld advice and sympathy from you. Consider this letter of mine to you as would a healer who gives his beloved to drink bitter medicine because he hopes for the cure and good health it will bring about. Peace be upon you, O Commander of the Faithful, Allah’s mercy, and His blessings.

[Al-Iqd Al-Farid, vol. 1, page 49-51]

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رسالة الإمام الحسن البصري الى أمير المومنين عمر بن عبدالعزيز في صفة الإمام العادل
اعلم يا أمير المؤمنين، أن الله جعل الإمام العادل قوام كل مائل، وقصد كل جائر، وصلاح كل فاسد، وقوة كل ضعيف، ونصفت كل مظلوم، ومفزع كل ملهوف والإمام العدل يا أمير المؤمنين كالراعي الشفيق على إبله، الرفيق بها، الذي يرتاد لها أطيب المراعي، ويذودها عن مراتع الهلكة، ويحميها من السباع، ويكنها من أذى الحر والقرّ. والإمام العدل يا أمير المؤمنين كالأب الحاني على ولده، يسعى لهم صغاراً، ويعلمهم كبارًا، يكتسب لهم في حياته، ويدخر لهم بعد مماته. والإمام العدل يا أمير المؤمنين كالأم الشفيقة البرة الرفيقة بولدها، حملته كرهًا، ووضعته كرهًا، وربته طفلاً تسهر بسهره، وتسكن بسكونه، ترضعه تارة وتفطمه أخرى، وتفرح بعافيته، وتغتمّ بشكايته، والإمام العدل يا أمير المؤمنين وصى اليتامى، وخازن المساكين، يربي صغيرهم، ويمون كبيرهم. والإمام العدل يا أمير المؤمنين كالقلب بين الجوارح، تصلح الجوارح بصلاحه، وتفسد بفساده. والإمام العدل يا أمير المؤمنين هو القائم بين الله وبين عباده، يسمع كلام الله ويسمعهم، وينظر إلى الله ويريهم، وينقاد إلى الله ويقودهم. فلا تكن يا أمير المؤمنين فيما ملّكك الله عز وجل كعبد ائتمنه سيده، واستحفظه ماله وعياله، فبدد المال وشرد العيال، فأفقر أهله وفرق ماله. و اعلم يا أمير المؤمنين أن الله أنزل الحدود ليزجر بها عن الخبائث والفواحش، فكيف إذا أتاها من يليها! وأن الله أنزل القصاص حياة لعباده، فكيف إذا قتلهم من يقتص لهم! واذكر يا أمير المؤمنين الموت وما بعده، وقلة أشياعك عنده، وأنصارك عليه، فتزود له ولما بعده من الفزع الأكبر. و أعلم يا أمير المؤمنين أن لك منزلاً غير منزلك الذي أنت فيه، يطول فيه ثواؤك، ويفارقك أحباؤك، يسلمونك في قعره فريدًا وحيدًا. فتزود له ما يصحبك {يَوْمَ يَفِرُّ الْمَرْءُ مِنْ أَخِيهِ . وَأُمِّهِ وَأَبِيهِ . وَصَاحِبَتِهِ وَبَنِيهِ} [عبس:34-36] وذكر يا أمير المؤمنين {أَفَلَا يَعْلَمُ إِذَا بُعْثِرَ مَا فِي الْقُبُورِ . وَحُصِّلَ مَا فِي الصُّدُورِ} [العاديات:9-10]، فالأسرار ظاهرة، والكتاب لا يغادر صغيرة ولا كبيرة إلا أحصاها. فالآن يا أمير المؤمنين وأنت في مهل قبل حلول الأجل، وانقطاع الأمل. لا تحكم يا أمير المؤمنين في عباد الله بحكم الجاهلين، ولا تسلك بهم سبيل الظالمين، ولا تسلط المستكبرين على المستضعفين، فإنهم لا يرقبون في مؤمن إلاّ ولا ذمة، فتبوء بأوزارك وأوزار مع أوزارك، وتحمل أثقالك وأثقالاً مع أثقالك. ولا يغرنك الذين يتنعمون بما فيه بؤسك، ويأكلون الطيبات في دنياهم بإذهاب طيباتك في آخرتك. ولا تنظر إلى قدرتك اليوم، ولكن انظر إلى قدرتك غدًا وأنت مأسور في حبائل الموت، وموقوف بين يدى الله في مجمع من الملائكة النبيين والمرسلين، وقد عنت الوجوه للحى القيوم. إني يا أمير المؤمنين، وإن لم أبلغ بعظتي ما بلغه أولو النهى من قبلي، فلم آلك شفقة ونصحاً، فأنزل كتابي إليك كمداوي حبيبه يسقيه الأدوية الكريهة لما يرجو له في ذلك من العافية والصحة. والسلام عليك يا أمير المؤمنين ورحمة الله وبركاته.

رابط المادة: http://iswy.co/e18m31

 
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Posted by on January 24, 2018 in Relax

 

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English Tafseer/Commentaries Of The Noble Quran

English Tafseer/Commentaries Of The Noble Quran
 
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Posted by on January 19, 2018 in Relax

 

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