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The Islamic History of Portugal

Portugal was once an Islamic kingdom.
It may come as a surprise to many that much of Portugal once lived under Islamic rule for over 500 years from the early 8th century during the period when Muslims ruled Andalusia. At that time Portugal was called Al-Garb Al-Andalus (the west of Al-Andalus, Spain).

The city of Silves was the capital of the medieval Muslim Kingdom of Portugal.

The Muslim introduction of new agricultural technology and plain hard work made Portugal prosper. To this day, the common Portuguese verb “mourejar” means “to work like a Moor (Muslim),” and it implies unusual diligence and tenacity. Indeed, Portuguese is saturated with thousands of words with Arabic origin.

Antonio Preto da Silva, a former Portuguese tourism commissioner in Canada stated:

“A good number of our people, especially educated people, know quite well that the Arabs were part of our history… They contributed to our language, our architecture and especially to our knowledge of navigation. The lateen sail and the astrolabe, introduced by the Arabs, were instrumental in launching our nation into its Age of Discovery.”

Portuguese Christian Reconquista (crusade) gradually forced the Muslims south, driving them from their last strongholds along the Algarve coast in 1249.

The Islamic period in Portugal left few major monuments. Portugal was always on the outer edge of the Muslim world and its frontier rulers invested little in grandiose construction. Today, the town of Mértola, in the Alentejo, possesses the only partial remains of a mosque, converted to a Catholic Church after the Reconquista. The waterwheel in Algarve today is a descendant of the Muslim waterwheel that helped revolutionise agriculture in Portugal as in Spain.
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The Portuguese language is however peppered with words of Arabic origin, often those relating to food, farming and manual work. One commonly used is “oxalá” – a direct descendent of “inshaAllah”, the term meaning “God willing.” The city we know of as Lisbon, originates from the city once known as Al-Ishbun. The famous city of Algarve, takes its name directly from al-Gharb al-Andalus. These are not the only places to inherit a Muslim name, hundreds of place names in Portugal start with “Al”, the Arabic for ‘The’. The Alfama district in Lisbon is one such example. In fact, all across the Mediterranean this is the case, from Alghero in Sardinia to Algeciras in Southern Spain. The Portuguese language continues to borrow many words from Arabic, such as azeitona (olives) and garrafa (bottle). Others include azenha (water mill), from the Arabic al-saniyah and nora (water wheel), from the Arabic na’urah.[1]

Following the period of Muslim rule, now ruled by Christians, Portugal pursued an aggressive stance towards Muslims which would see them come into confrontation with the Mughal Empire in India, the Mamluks in Egypt and eventually the Ottomans. Post-Islamic Portugal would also unfortunately go on to play a leading role in the Atlantic Slave Trade, which involved the mass trade and transportation of slaves from Africa (many of whom were Muslims) and other parts of the world to the American continent.

The Euro 2016 tournament should serve as a reminder to us that Islam is not a new phenomenon in Europe but rather it is part of the fabric of the continent with deep historical roots. former Muslim nations such as Spain, Portugal, and parts of Romania, Hungry and Croatia participated in the tournament , whilst other nations were heavily represented by Muslim players such as France, Switzerland and Germany.

Islam is Europe’s second religion.

Source: www.islam21c.com

 
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Posted by on July 12, 2016 in Uncategorized

 

Is the Qur’an A Good Book? – Dr. Joseph Lumbard

Originally posted on:https://bloggingtheology.net/

‘A common question that is both basic yet extremely profound – posed by many critics of the Islamic tradition is whether or not the Qur’an is a good book. Does it promote concepts that provide answers for humans to live a healthy and beneficial lives – for both themselves and the world around them?
Take a look at how Bayan Claremont’s visiting faculty member, Dr. Joseph Lumbard tackles this question.’

 
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Posted by on June 4, 2016 in Relax, Video

 

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Why Christian minister with the US Marines embraced Islam

Blogging Theology

Find out why a Methodist Christian Minister with the US Marines was so intrigued with Islam that he went to the Masjid to take his Shahada but couldn’t find anyone to help him take it until he decided to track down Nouman Ali Khan.

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Posted by on June 4, 2016 in Relax, Video

 

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Extremist Slovakian Prime Minister: ‘Islam Has No Place In Slovakia’

In his first interview since being re-elected prime minister of Slovakia, Robert Fico claimed that Islam “has no place in” in the country.

With his usual bigotry; “It may look strange but sorry,” he said in a Thursday wire statement. “Islam has no place in Slovakia.”

The Islamic Foundation in Slovakia argued Fico’s comments “not only harm Slovak Muslims but also the country’s interests as a sovereign country which is building its position on the international scene.”

“We ask with what have we deserved to become the target of hatred not just on the internet and in public space, but also from those who should protect us based on their essential role and function,” they told the Spectator.

 
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Posted by on May 27, 2016 in News

 

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Swiss citizenship process suspended for Muslim family for ‘no handshake’!

Respect of women and their rights to their own body and whether or not they allow men to touch them is at the very core of this topic.  Allah is the one who knows best what he has created and what the needs and limits are for each of us.

Shaking hands (and touching) members of the opposite sex when closely related, is not permissable for Muslims according to the teachings of Islam.

This is to discourage physical contact which could lead to familiarity that is unwarranted or undesired by the lady. It could also be the initial cause for desire within both the man & woman.

Men shaking hands with women was not totally accepted by society even in the United States less than one hundred years ago. Unless it was through proper introduction and the woman had first extended her hand toward the gentleman it was considered improper for a man to extend his hand if the lady had not offered hers. Also, it was only expected the man would hold only the tips of her fingers, and to lower his gaze.

There is a hadeeth (narration of an event) from Ma’qil ibn Yassar, saying; The prophet, peace be upon him said,

“It is better for you to be stabbed in the head with an iron needle than to touch the hand of a woman who is not permissible to you.”
[At-Tabarani in “Al Kabir, #486. Shaikh Albani said in Sahih al-Jaami’ it is sahih #5045]

Umaymah bint Raqeeqah said:

‘The prophet, peace be upon him, said, “I do not shake hands with women (not permissible to touch).”
[An-Nasaai, #4181 and Ibn Majah, #2874; Albani declared it sahih; Al Jami, #2513]


Switzerland ignored all this islamic teaching and showed no respect for muslims around the globe by an odd decision. It has suspended the citizenship process for the family of two teenage Muslim brothers who refused to shake hands with female teachers !

The brothers aged 14 and 15 said physical contact with women who were not family members was against their faith.

Officials in Therwil then told them not to shake male teachers’ hands to avoid gender discrimination.

But politicians insisted that shaking hands was part of the national culture.

The case has sparked a debate about religious freedoms, and the Basel-Country canton has requested an expert legal opinion on the matter.

A spokesman for the canton said naturalisation proceedings for the family had been put on hold, but added that such suspensions were common in citizenship procedures.

There are about 350,000 Muslims in Switzerland, which has a population of 8 million.

 
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Posted by on April 22, 2016 in News

 

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Taif incident

In the tenth year of the message, Muhammad’s uncle Abu-Talib and his wife Khadeejah both died. With their death the abuse of Quraish multiplied greatly. Of those few people who were allowed to hear the Qur’an many became Muslims. However, the continuous and unrelenting torture of Quraish towards the Muslims drove Muhammad (pbuh) to seek an ally for them to protect them against Quraish and allow the people to hear the message of Islam.

This new situation meant that the Prophet had to explore new avenues in his search for support. After long deliberation, he set out on foot for Taif, a mountainous town about 100 kilometers from Makkah. His only companion on this trip was his faithful servant, Zayd ibn Harithah.

So he traveled to Al-Taif in search of the protection of the tribe of Thaqeef and with the hope that they might accept his message. He presented his message to Ibn Abd-Yalayl ibn Abdu Kulal and the nobles of Al-Taif. They, however, met him with curses and abuse.

They then roused the citizens and enflamed their passions against him till they stoned him out of their city and he fled from them into a farm belonging to Utba and Shaiba the sons of Rabeea. These two watched him from a distance as he sat below one of their grape arbors and supplicated to Allah.

In spite of the catastrophe and hardships faced in this journey and the sorrow that not a single body embraced Islam, the heart of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi Wa Sallam) was full of love and glorification of ALLAAH (the Most High). When Muhammad (pbuh) saw that the people of Thaqeef had left him alone and returned to their daily lives, with a heavy heart he lifted his hands towards the heavens and prayed:

O my Lord, unto you I bewail my weakness, inability, and disregard of mankind towards me. O Most Merciful of the merciful, you are the Lord of the weak and my Lord. Unto whom shall you deliver me?. Unto one who is distant and shall glower at me, or unto an enemy whom you have given authority over me? If you are not angry against me then I do not care [what befalls me], but your [gifts of] well being are more commodious for me. I seek refuge in the light of your face that has overcome all darkness, and through which all matters of this life and the hereafter have been established in justice, that your retribution should fall upon me, or your disdain should befall me. Unto you is [all] appeasement until you are appeased, and no one has power or ability except in You

As Utba and Shaiba watched Muhammad (pbuh) they felt pity on him and sent to him their slave boy, Addas, to collect a bowl of grapes and take it to him. Addas collected the grapes and took them to Muhammad placing them in his hand. He then said: “Eat.” As Muhammad was about to eat he began with the words “In the name of Allah” (which all Muslims say before eating or drinking). Addas was a Christian and when he heard these words he said to Muhammad “Verily, these are not the words of the people of this land.” Muhammad asked him from which land he came and Addas replied “From ‘Ninwa’.” Muhammad said: “From the land of the pious man Jonah the son of Amittai.” Addas marveled: “And how do you know Jonah the son of Amittai?” Muhammad (pbuh) responded: “He is my brother. He was a messenger and I am a messenger” Upon hearing these words Addas took to kissing the hands, head and feet of prophet Muhammad

When Urwa and Shaiba saw this they said to one another: “Verily, he has quite corrupted our slave boy.” When Addas returned to them they said to him: “Fie upon you Addas! Why did you kiss the man’s head, hands and feet?” Addas replied: “O masters, there is nothing in this earth better than this matter. He has told me of a matter which is only known to a messenger” They rebuked him saying: “Fie unto you Addas! Do not allow him to divert you from your religion. Your religion is far better than his!”

Muhammad (pbuh) then departed and returned home practically overwhelmed with excessive sorrow. On his way home he stopped in Qarn ath-Tha’alib, as he looked up, he saw a cloud shadowing him and he saw angel Gabriel in it. Angel Gabriel then addressed him saying: “Allah has heard what your people said to you, and how they have replied to you. Allah has sent the Angel of the Mountains to you so that you may order him to do whatever you wish to these people.” The Angel of the Mountains then called out greeting him and then said, “O Muhammad! Order what you wish. If you like, I shall cause al-Akhshabayn (two mountains surrounding Al-Taif) to fall upon them.” The Prophet (pbuh), replied “No, for I hope that there shall be among their children those who will worship Allah alone, and will worship none besides Him.” He then returned to Makkah and to the abuse of its people.

 
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Posted by on April 22, 2016 in Know him !, The message

 

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The Lenient

Amongst the other things that Islam has encouraged and called for is adopting leniency in buying and selling. It was narrated on the authority of Jaabir ibn ‘Abdullaah, may Allaah be pleased with him, that the Messenger of Allaah, peace and blessing be upon him, said: “May Allaah’s mercy be on him who is lenient in his buying, selling, and in demanding back his money.” [Reported by Al-Bukhaari and others].

It was also reported from Huthayfah, may Allaah be pleased with him, that the Messenger of Allaah, peace and blessing be upon him, said:

“A servant from amongst the servants of Allaah was brought to Him whom Allaah had endowed with riches. He (Allaah The Almighty) said to him: “What (did you do) in the world?” He (the person) said: “They cannot conceal anything from Allaah.” He added: “O my Lord, You endowed me with Your riches. I used to enter into transactions with people. It was my nature to be lenient to (my debtors). I showed leniency to the solvent and gave respite to the insolvent, whereupon Allaah The Almighty said: “I have more right than you to do this to connive at My servant.” [Reported by Al-Bukhaari and Muslim].

Dear reader, there are many types of adopting leniency such as not to go extremely regarding price, especially if they buyer is known with poverty, little money, and also rescinding a sale with a Muslim who is not happy with his transaction for no one will do so except the regretful whom sale causes harm to.

One should not be a reason for causing harm to his fellow Muslim brother. Therefore, it was narrated in a Saheeh (authentic) Hadeeth on the authority of Abu Hurairah, may Allaah be pleased with him, that the Messenger of Allaah, peace and blessing be upon him, said: “Whoever rescinds a sale with a Muslim who is not happy with his transaction, Allaah Will Cancel his slip on the Day of Resurrection.” [Reported by Abu Daawood with a Saheeh Sanad (i.e. authentic chain of transmission)].

source

 
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Posted by on April 18, 2016 in Relax

 

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