Tag Archives: Muhammad

Isaiah 42 & Prophet Muhammad !

Abdullah ibn ‘Amr ibn al-‘As said:

‘By Allah, he is described in the Torah partly as he is described in the Qur’an:”O Prophet, We have sent you as a witness, a bearer of good news and a warner and a protection to the unlettered. You are My slave and Messenger. I have called you the trusty one who is neither coarse nor harsh nor loud in the markets. Allah Almighty will not take him until He has made the crooked community straight by him so that they say, “There is no god but Allah,” and by it they will open blind eyes, deaf ears and covered hearts.'” Source

A very similar passage is found in the bible:

The Servant of the LORD1 “Here is my servant, whom I uphold, my chosen one in whom I delight; I will put my Spirit on him, and he will bring justice to the nations.1
2 He will not shout or cry out, or raise his voice in the streets.2
3 A bruised reed he will not break, and a smoldering wick he will not snuff out. In faithfulness he will bring forth justice;
4 he will not falter or be discouraged till he establishes justice on earth. In his teaching the islands will put their hope.”
5 This is what God the LORD says— the Creator of the heavens, who stretches them out, who spreads out the earth with all that springs from it, who gives breath to its people, and life to those who walk on it:
6 “I, the LORD, have called you in righteousness; I will take hold of your hand. I will keep you and will make you to be a covenant for the people and a light for the Gentiles,3
7 to open eyes that are blind, to free captives from prison and to release from the dungeon those who sit in darkness.4
8 “I am the LORD; that is my name! I will not yield my glory to another or my praise to idols.5
9 See, the former things have taken place, and new things I declare; before they spring into being I announce them to you.”
10 Sing to the LORD a new song, his praise from the ends of the earth, you who go down to the sea, and all that is in it, you islands, and all who live in them.
11 Let the wilderness and its towns raise their voices; let the settlements where Kedar lives rejoice.6 Let the people of Sela sing for joy; let them shout from the mountaintops.7

1- The Justice brought to the nations, the complete System of GOD Almighty’s Laws on earth, the Truthfulness of Prophet Muhammad all point to these verses:

“Allah commands justice, the doing Of good, and liberality to kith And kin, and He forbids All shameful deeds, and injustice And rebellion: He instructs you, That ye may receive admonition. (The Noble Quran, 16:90)”
“O ye who believe! Stand out firmly For justice, as witnesses To Allah, even as against Yourselves, or your parents, Or your kin, and whether It be (against) rich or poor: For Allah can best protect both. Follow not the lusts (Of your hearts), lest ye Swerve, and if ye Distort (justice) or decline To do justice, verily Allah is well-acquainted With all that ye do. (The Noble Quran, 4:135)”
2- Compare with the hadeeth above.

3- The Gentiles are the non-Jews. These verses clearly suggest that the coming Prophet will be among the Gentiles. The Classic Arabic term ‘Ummi’=unlettered in the hadith above, refers to a gentile or someone who is not familiar with the Law of Prophet Moses.


4- Compare with the hadeeth.

5- The Arabs before Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him were pagans. They used to worship idols. They had 360 idols in the Holy City of Mecca.

6- GOD will send the people of Kedar (i.e., the Arabs) a Prophet and they should “rejoice” and “raise their voices” in happiness. Kedar is the son of Ishmael peace be upon him: “These are the names of the sons of Ishmael, listed in the order of their birth: Nebaioth the firstborn of Ishmael, Kedar, Adbeel, Mibsam, (From the NIV Bible, Genesis 25:13)”
The “settlements where Kedar lives” is referring to the Arabs.

7- The place being spoken of is actually the city of Madinah because ‘Sela’ is the name of a famous mountain in Madinah. Madinah was the city of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh):
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Posted by on February 4, 2019 in Truth & evidence, Video


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Witnesses from Early Jews to the Prophethood of Muhammad

The Holy Book contains many prophecies about the prophet Muhammad; the Testament of Moses, a book which is not considered canonical, determines his birth year. Psalm” 84″ determines the place of the Muslims Hajj, the Book of Deuteronomy (3:23) determines the place on which the first revelation of the Holy Quran would shine.

Isaiah (21:13) determines the place to which he would migrate; it even refers to one of the important military confrontation between the expected prophet and his enemies. For all of these reasons the Jews are reported in the Islamic literature to have known the period in which the prophet Muhammad would be born, the place where he would be born, the place to which he would migrate to and many other events in the life of the prophet Muhammad. In this short article, we will choose some of these events that show that they knew the Prophet Muhammad.

God says in the Holy Quran what means:

Those to whom We gave the Scripture know him as they know their own sons. But indeed, a party of them conceal the truth while they know [it].(2-146)

Bahira, the Monk:

When the Messenger of Allâh was twelve years old, he went with his uncle Abu Talib on a business journey to Syria. When they reached Busra (which was a part of Syria, in the vicinity of Howran under the Roman domain) they met a monk called Bahira (his real name was Georges), who showed great kindness, and entertained them lavishly. He had never been in the habit of receiving or entertaining them before. He readily enough recognized the Prophet and said while taking his hand: “This is the master of all humans. Allâh will send him with a Message which will be a mercy to all beings.” Abu Talib asked: “How do you know that?” He replied: “When you appeared from the direction of ‘Aqabah, all stones and trees prostrated themselves, which they never do except for a Prophet. I can recognize him also by the seal of Prophethood which is below his shoulder, like an apple. We have got to learn this from our books.” He also asked Abu Talib to send the boy back to Makkah and not to take him to Syria for fear of the Jews. Abu Talib obeyed and sent him back to Makkah with some of his men servants.

The Madinese always heard the Jews say that a Prophet was about to rise, for the time for a new dispensation had arrived. Him they would follow and then smite their enemies as the children of ‘Ad and Iram had been smitten.

Abdullah Ibn Salam:

Abdullah bin Salam, the most learned rabbi among the Jews came to see the Prophet when he arrived, and asked him certain questions to ascertain his real Prophethood. No sooner did he hear the Prophet’s answers than he embraced Islam, but added that if his people knew of his Islamization they would advance false arguments against me. The Prophet sent for some Jews and asked them about ‘Abdullah bin Salam, they testified to his scholarly aptitude and virtuous standing. Here it was divulged to them that he had embraced Islam and on the spot, they imparted categorically opposite testimonies and described him as the most evil of all evils. In another narration ‘Abdullah bin Salam said, “O Jews! Be Allâh fearing. By Allâh, the only One, you know that he is the Messenger of Allâh sent to people with the Truth.” They replied, “You are lying.” … That was the Prophet’s first experience with the Jews.

On the authority of the Mother of believers Safiyah – may Allah be pleased with her – narrated: Safiyah, daughter of Huyayi bin Akhtab said: I was the closest child to my and my uncle Abi Yasir’s heart. Whenever they saw me with a child of theirs, they should pamper me so tenderly to the exclusion of anyone else. However, with the advent of the Messenger of Allâh and setting in Quba’ with Bani ‘Amr bin ‘Awf, my , Huyayi bin Akhtab and my uncle Abu Yasir bin Akhtab went to see him and did not return until sunset when they came back walking lazily and fully dejected. I, as usually, hurried to meet them smiling, but they would not turn to me for the grief that caught them. I heard my uncle Abu Yasir say to Ubai and Huyayi: “Is it really he (i.e. Muhammad)?” The former said: “It is he, I swear by Allâh!” “Did you really recognize him?” they asked. He answered: “Yes, and my heart is burning with enmity towards him”

Salama ibn Slama Albadry

Narrated Salama ibn Salama Albadry “while I was young, there used to be a Jewish neighbor living next door to us. Once he came to the place where our tribesmen used to sit and began to talk to us about resurrection, the Judgment day, reckoning, the measure, hell and paradise. I was the youngest of them at that time. He was talking to idolaters who do never believe that there will be resurrection, so they asked” damn! is that possible that people will be resurrected again and they will either go to hell or paradise and that they will be rewarded according to their deeds?”

“I swear in the name of God, this will happen.” He said

“How can we be sure of that you are talking about?” They said.

“A prophet will be sent soon, his locus will be there.” Pointing by his finger between Mekka and Yemen.” He said

“When can we see him?” They asked

“Looking at me, he said “If this boy became a young man, he will see him.” He said

Salam said” Not many years didn’t pass until the prophet was sent and this Jew was still alive among us, we believed in him but he didn’t out of envy and rancor.|

“We asked him” damn ! Aren’t you the one who told us about him?”

“Yes, I did. But he is not a prophet.”

In fact, the Jews, though many of them believed in Muhammad, refused to believe because they wanted this prophet to be from them.The Holy Quran commented on such approach of the Jews in the following verse:

And when the Book was sent to them by God verifying what had been revealed to them already even though before it they used to pray for victory over the unbelievers and even though they recognised it when it came to them, they renounced it. The curse of God be on those who deny! (2:89)

Also the Holy Quran comments on the attitude of the Jews in the following verse:

They disbelieved in him though they knew him exactly they recognized their children, The Holy Quran says commenting on their situation saying “The people of the Book know this as they know their own sons; but some of them conceal the truth which they themselves know. (2:146)

Prior to the advent of prophet Mohammed, the Jews emigrated to Madina and Tema because they understood the prophecies in their Holy Book especially those which refer to the locus of the Message and also the place of his determination.


Ibn Isaq,a well-known reliable biographer, says he was told by some of Madina dwellers, known as the supporters, that the reason behind their converting to Islam was that they used to hear from the Jews, we were idolaters and they had a Holy Book, they had knowledge that we did not have, there used to be skirmishes between us, if we defeated them, they would threaten us saying’ the advent of a new prophet is approximating and we will kill you the same way the nation of Aad and Aram was killed ( in large numbers), this threats were repeated several times in different occasions. When this prophet was sent, we believed in him when he called us to God but they disbelieved.” And for this reason the following verse was revealed:

And when there comes to them a Book from Allah, confirming what is with them,- although from of old they had prayed for victory against those without Faith,- when there comes to them that which they (should) have recognised, they refuse to believe in it but the curse of Allah is on those without Faith. (2:89)

Khatada, one of the early scientists, says they Jews used to pray for victory in the name of Mohammed, and when Moahhamed was sent they disbelieved though the prophet was prophesied in their Holy Book because they thought he would be from among them.

The Rabbi ibn Al-Hayban

Short before the Islamic call dawned on the Arab Peninsula, a versatile pious rabbi by the name Ibn Alhyban came from Sham to the city of Madina, the city to which the prophet was destined to emigrate to; he read in the Holy Book that the city of Madina will be the place to which the prophet would emigrate, so he came to dwell in Madina to be among those who would follow and support.

Ibn Ishaq narrates that the leader of Bani Quriza, a chief tribe at that time, said that a rabbi from Sham came to live among us, his name was ibn Al-Hayban, I have never seen a man who perfect his prayer like him, he came to us two years before the advent of the prophet. When there is draught, we used to go to ask him to pray for rain, he would say’ I swear I won’t do unless you give some alms before you go, we would ask’ how much’, he says’ a measure of dry dates or barley. So we did what he asked. He would take us to the back of the mountain and there we ask for rain under his leadership, no sooner he left his place than rain fell down superfluously, he did twice or thrice.

When he was dying, we gathered around him, he said” O’ Jews, do you know what reason made me leave the land of Sham(Sham), the land of welfare to the land of hunger and hardships( Madina).

They said’ you know best.”

“I emigrated because I expected a prophet to appear and this is his time to appear, this town is the place where he will emigrate to. Believe in him, let nobody else precede you.” He died shortly after his words.

When it was the night on which Bani Quryza, a major Jewish tribe at that time, was defeated, three Jews left their fortresses and called the others” O’ Jews, we assure you that he is the prophet whom ibn Al- Hyban told you about.”

They said” what are your proofs?”

“We swear he is as was described”

And they all embraced Islam.


By Magdy Abdalshafy


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Posted by on December 14, 2016 in Truth & evidence


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Jewish rabbi confirms: Muhammad is a great Prophet.


Posted by on November 23, 2016 in Know him !, Truth & evidence, Video


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Taif incident

In the tenth year of the message, Muhammad’s uncle Abu-Talib and his wife Khadeejah both died. With their death the abuse of Quraish multiplied greatly. Of those few people who were allowed to hear the Qur’an many became Muslims. However, the continuous and unrelenting torture of Quraish towards the Muslims drove Muhammad (pbuh) to seek an ally for them to protect them against Quraish and allow the people to hear the message of Islam.

This new situation meant that the Prophet had to explore new avenues in his search for support. After long deliberation, he set out on foot for Taif, a mountainous town about 100 kilometers from Makkah. His only companion on this trip was his faithful servant, Zayd ibn Harithah.

So he traveled to Al-Taif in search of the protection of the tribe of Thaqeef and with the hope that they might accept his message. He presented his message to Ibn Abd-Yalayl ibn Abdu Kulal and the nobles of Al-Taif. They, however, met him with curses and abuse.

They then roused the citizens and enflamed their passions against him till they stoned him out of their city and he fled from them into a farm belonging to Utba and Shaiba the sons of Rabeea. These two watched him from a distance as he sat below one of their grape arbors and supplicated to Allah.

In spite of the catastrophe and hardships faced in this journey and the sorrow that not a single body embraced Islam, the heart of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi Wa Sallam) was full of love and glorification of ALLAAH (the Most High). When Muhammad (pbuh) saw that the people of Thaqeef had left him alone and returned to their daily lives, with a heavy heart he lifted his hands towards the heavens and prayed:

O my Lord, unto you I bewail my weakness, inability, and disregard of mankind towards me. O Most Merciful of the merciful, you are the Lord of the weak and my Lord. Unto whom shall you deliver me?. Unto one who is distant and shall glower at me, or unto an enemy whom you have given authority over me? If you are not angry against me then I do not care [what befalls me], but your [gifts of] well being are more commodious for me. I seek refuge in the light of your face that has overcome all darkness, and through which all matters of this life and the hereafter have been established in justice, that your retribution should fall upon me, or your disdain should befall me. Unto you is [all] appeasement until you are appeased, and no one has power or ability except in You

As Utba and Shaiba watched Muhammad (pbuh) they felt pity on him and sent to him their slave boy, Addas, to collect a bowl of grapes and take it to him. Addas collected the grapes and took them to Muhammad placing them in his hand. He then said: “Eat.” As Muhammad was about to eat he began with the words “In the name of Allah” (which all Muslims say before eating or drinking). Addas was a Christian and when he heard these words he said to Muhammad “Verily, these are not the words of the people of this land.” Muhammad asked him from which land he came and Addas replied “From ‘Ninwa’.” Muhammad said: “From the land of the pious man Jonah the son of Amittai.” Addas marveled: “And how do you know Jonah the son of Amittai?” Muhammad (pbuh) responded: “He is my brother. He was a messenger and I am a messenger” Upon hearing these words Addas took to kissing the hands, head and feet of prophet Muhammad

When Urwa and Shaiba saw this they said to one another: “Verily, he has quite corrupted our slave boy.” When Addas returned to them they said to him: “Fie upon you Addas! Why did you kiss the man’s head, hands and feet?” Addas replied: “O masters, there is nothing in this earth better than this matter. He has told me of a matter which is only known to a messenger” They rebuked him saying: “Fie unto you Addas! Do not allow him to divert you from your religion. Your religion is far better than his!”

Muhammad (pbuh) then departed and returned home practically overwhelmed with excessive sorrow. On his way home he stopped in Qarn ath-Tha’alib, as he looked up, he saw a cloud shadowing him and he saw angel Gabriel in it. Angel Gabriel then addressed him saying: “Allah has heard what your people said to you, and how they have replied to you. Allah has sent the Angel of the Mountains to you so that you may order him to do whatever you wish to these people.” The Angel of the Mountains then called out greeting him and then said, “O Muhammad! Order what you wish. If you like, I shall cause al-Akhshabayn (two mountains surrounding Al-Taif) to fall upon them.” The Prophet (pbuh), replied “No, for I hope that there shall be among their children those who will worship Allah alone, and will worship none besides Him.” He then returned to Makkah and to the abuse of its people.

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Posted by on April 22, 2016 in Know him !, The message


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The Lenient

Amongst the other things that Islam has encouraged and called for is adopting leniency in buying and selling. It was narrated on the authority of Jaabir ibn ‘Abdullaah, may Allaah be pleased with him, that the Messenger of Allaah, peace and blessing be upon him, said: “May Allaah’s mercy be on him who is lenient in his buying, selling, and in demanding back his money.” [Reported by Al-Bukhaari and others].

It was also reported from Huthayfah, may Allaah be pleased with him, that the Messenger of Allaah, peace and blessing be upon him, said:

“A servant from amongst the servants of Allaah was brought to Him whom Allaah had endowed with riches. He (Allaah The Almighty) said to him: “What (did you do) in the world?” He (the person) said: “They cannot conceal anything from Allaah.” He added: “O my Lord, You endowed me with Your riches. I used to enter into transactions with people. It was my nature to be lenient to (my debtors). I showed leniency to the solvent and gave respite to the insolvent, whereupon Allaah The Almighty said: “I have more right than you to do this to connive at My servant.” [Reported by Al-Bukhaari and Muslim].

Dear reader, there are many types of adopting leniency such as not to go extremely regarding price, especially if they buyer is known with poverty, little money, and also rescinding a sale with a Muslim who is not happy with his transaction for no one will do so except the regretful whom sale causes harm to.

One should not be a reason for causing harm to his fellow Muslim brother. Therefore, it was narrated in a Saheeh (authentic) Hadeeth on the authority of Abu Hurairah, may Allaah be pleased with him, that the Messenger of Allaah, peace and blessing be upon him, said: “Whoever rescinds a sale with a Muslim who is not happy with his transaction, Allaah Will Cancel his slip on the Day of Resurrection.” [Reported by Abu Daawood with a Saheeh Sanad (i.e. authentic chain of transmission)].


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Posted by on April 18, 2016 in Relax


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Powerful Force

Arguably, the disease of hatred is one of the most devastating forces in the world. But the force that is infinitely more powerful is love. Love is an attribute of God; hate is not. A name of God mentioned in the Quran is al-Wadud, the Loving one. Hate is the absence of love, and only through love can hatred be removed from the heart. In a profound and beautiful hadith, the Prophet said, “None of you has achieved faith until he loves for his brother what he loves for himself” [Bukhari, Muslim]. The 13th-century scholar Imam al-Nawawi comments on this hadith saying:

When the Prophet says “brother” we should interpret this as universal brotherhood, which includes Muslims and non-Muslims. For one should desire for his brother non-Muslim that he enter into the state of submission with his Lord [Islam]. And for his brother Muslim, he should love for him the continuation of guidance and that he remain in submission. Because of this, it is considered highly recommended and divinely rewarding to pray for a non- Muslim’s guidance. The word “love” here refers to a desire for good and benefit to come to others. This love is celestial or spiritual love and not earthly love or human love. For human nature causes people to desire harm to befall their enemies and to discriminate against those who are unlike them [in creed, color, or character]. But men must oppose their nature and pray for their brothers and desire for others what they desire for themselves. Moreover, whenever a man does not desire good for his brother, it is from envy. And envy is a rejection of God’s apportionment in the world. Thus, one is opposing how God meted out sustenance in concord with His wisdom. Therefore, one must oppose his own ego’s desires and seek treatment for this disease with the healing force of acceptance of the divine decree and prayer on behalf of one’s enemies in a way that suppresses the ego [nafs].

Compiled From:
“Purification of the Heart” – Hamza Yusuf

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Posted by on January 22, 2016 in Relax


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How the Prophet Brought About Positive Change

The greatest, most profound change in history happened peacefully.

Nevertheless, it was truly decisive.

Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) changed the people’s beliefs, their behavior, their customs, and their social norms, and he did so by convincing them with kindness and gentle persuasion.

He did not force people to agree with him.

He did not resort to a show of strength except when absolutely necessary to protect his people.

For the first thirteen years of his mission, he lived in Makkah in a state of abject weakness, persecuted by his countrymen.

After he emigrated to Madinah, his focus was on building and safeguarding his community. If we consider the landmark events of the Madani era, we find that the battle of Badr was not pre-planned; the battle of Uhud was purely defensive as was the Battle of the Confederate tribes.

The peace treaty of Hudaybiyah that the Prophet entered into with the Makkans was seen by many of the Muslims to be a humiliation for Islam, but the Prophet knew better.

Then, when the Muslims finally entered Makkah in victory, they did so peacefully. They took the city without fighting or bloodshed. Then the Prophet (peace be upon him) stood among the Makkans, who feared reprisals for the years of persecution they had meted out to the Muslims, and he said:

“You may go as you please, for you are free.” (Authenticated by Al-Albani)

He restored to the weak and granted their rights, manumitted slaves, elevated the status of the people, and did away with oppressive practices against women.

He likewise did away with the exploitative practices, pomp and influence of the city’s despots with the minimum of hardship for all parties concerned.

It is impressive how the Prophet rid Arabian society of the many deep-rooted and pernicious customs that they had during the times of ignorance. He was able to bring about a new mindset, freed from the rote, blind following of ancestral traditions. He made the people aware of the falsehood of their former customs, so this awareness could protect them from lapsing back into such modes of thought.

In this way, the Prophet brought them out of the darkness of superstition, fortune-telling and divination. He dispelled their wantonness and sexual exploitation. He did away with their tribal boasting and rivalries. He rid their hearts of racism. When his own companion Abu Dharr betrayed racist tendencies, he did not hesitate to tell him:

“You are indeed a man possessed of some habits from the times of ignorance.” (Muslim, 4092)

He never compromised on polytheism. He opposed it absolutely, regardless of the sacrifices and hardships this meant for him. He stove to dismantle polytheism in the minds and hearts of the people and bring them to monotheism. Nevertheless, when he went to Makkah after the Treaty of Hudaybiyah to perform the Umrah (minor pilgrimage), there were three hundred and sixty idols around the Ka`bah. He did not destroy the idols or interfere with them in any way.

What would have been the point?

It is easy for people to recreate their idols as long as they believe in them. The only permanent way to dismantle them is to dismantle them in the people’s hearts and minds. Only after he entered Makkah as their leader, after the people entered into Islam in droves, did he remove the idols from the Ka`bah, restoring it as a place of worship for Allah alone. At this time, a great majority of the people had been convinced of the falsehood of idol worship. Indeed, one of the Makkan leaders commented:

“Had they been of any worth, they would not have forsaken us.”

The Prophet (peace be upon him) was an example of patience in how he coexisted with the pagans in Makkah, and in the fortitude he showed by responding gently and with an open heart to them, in spite of their abuses and hostility towards him and towards the men and women who chose to follow him.

Then, after the emigration to Madinah, he lived alongside the Jews and the pagans from the local tribes, not to mention the hypocrites who concealed their animosity towards Islam and the Muslims who were weak in faith. These people were still in Madinah at the time of the Prophet’s death. The chapter of the Quran entitled al-Hujurat, which addresses those who were being ill-mannered towards the Prophet and using spiteful names, was revealed in the ninth year after the emigration. One of its final verses reads:

{The Bedouins say: “We have believed.” Say [to them]: “You have not [yet] believed; but say [instead], ‘We have submitted’, for faith has not yet entered your hearts. And if you obey Allah and His Messenger, He will not deprive you from your deeds of anything. Indeed, Allah is Forgiving and Merciful.} (49: 14)

At the time of the Prophet’s death, his shield was being held by a Jewish man as collateral for a debt he owed him. The Prophet had borrowed the money to provide food for his family. The Prophet needed the money at the time, and the purchase of the shield was in the Jewish man’s interest at the time.

This is the basis of coexistence, to realize that your own welfare and that of other people can be realized together.  In this way, the Prophet gave a practical lesson for future generations. Madinah, the first capital of Islam, had this diversity within it. In this way, the people could learn how to call others to Islam and how to conduct themselves in a society where they live with people of other faiths as fellow citizens.

During the many eras of Islamic rule throughout history, the rights of the various religious communities and denominations were upheld and protected within the context of a strong social fabric. They were not forced to change their religion or their denominational affiliation.

The Muslims continued to engage them in polite debate and discussion.  This social fabric can be torn apart by conflicts spurred on by political interests who instigate the ignorant people and play on their prejudices. When this happens, when neighbor turns against neighbor, people abandon our Prophet’s teachings which stress neighborly rights even with those you disagree with.

At times of conflict, people behave irrationally and suspiciously. Sensible people know that this state of affairs is temporary and can – must – be surmounted. People can settle back into living together in peace and cooperation for their mutual wellbeing.  This is why `Amr ibn al-`As praised the Roman people for being:

“the quickest people to recover from a crisis.”

He was referring to an aspect of their cultural mindset that allowed them to get past the times of strife and war and return to a productive state of dialogue and cooperation. This is what we see in Europe after the two world wars. The European people pulled themselves together and ultimately created the European common market, and ultimately the European Union with all of its impressive institutions.

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Posted by on June 30, 2015 in Uncategorized


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